Wheel Alignment

Wheel Alignment

Wheel alignment, sometimes referred to as breaking or tracking, is part of standard automobile maintenance that consists of adjusting the angles of wheels to the car manufacturer specifications. The purpose of these adjustments is to reduce tire wear, and to ensure that vehicle travel is straight and true (without "pulling" to one side). Alignment angles can also be altered beyond the maker's specifications to obtain a specific handling characteristic. Motorsport and off-road applications may call for angles to be adjusted well beyond "normal", for a variety of reasons.


1. Primary angles

The primary angles are the basic angle alignment of the wheels relative to each other and to the car body. These adjustments are the camber, caster and toe. On some cars, not all of these can be adjusted on every wheel.These three parameters can be further categorized into front and rear (with no caster on the rear, typically not being steered wheels). In summary, the parameters are:

  • Front: Caster (left & right)
  • Front: Camber (left & right)
  • Front: Toe (left, right & total)
  • Rear: Camber (left & right)
  • Rear: Toe (left, right & total)

2. Secondary angles
  • SAI (Steering Axis Inclination) (left & right)
  • Included angle (left & right)
  • Toe out on turns (left & right)
  • Maximum Turns (left & right)
  • Toe curve change (left & right)
  • Track width difference
  • Wheelbase difference
  • Front ride height (left & right)
  • Rear ride height (left & right)
  • Frame angle
  • Setback (front & rear)